Best Abacus Classes in Nagpur - Abacus Coaching in Nagpur by Sunshine Tutorials

What Is an Abacus?

The word abacus is derived from the Latin word abax, which means a flat surface, board or tablet. As such, an abacus is a calculating table or tablet. The abacus is the oldest device in history to be used for arithmetic purposes, such as counting. It is typically an open wooden rectangular shape with wooden beads on vertical rods. Each bead can represent a different number. For simple arithmetic purposes, each bead can represent one number. So, as a person moves beads from one side to the other, they would count, 'one, two, three', etc. An abacus can be used to calculate large numbers, as well. The columns of beads could represent different place values. For example, one column may represent numbers in the hundreds, while another column may represent numbers in the thousands.

History of the Abacus

The written numbers (1,2,3,4, etc.) did not exist many, many years ago. But individuals still needed a way to count, especially merchants selling fruits, vegetables and other goods. This is how the abacus came of use. It has been said that the first abacuses were just flat boards. Rocks would be placed on the board and moved about for calculation purposes. Other abacuses had a film of sand or dust on the top of the surface and one would use their finger to make calculations. Using rocks, seashells and fingers on the abacus could only be helpful to a certain extent. That is when the wooden beads became helpful. The oldest abacus known to man is the Salamis Tablet, named for the island of which it was found--Salamis Island in Greece--the nearest island to the capital of Athens. It was found in 1846 and can be dated back to 300 BCE. The Roman hand abacus was the next abacus to be discovered. It was used in 300 CE in business, engineering and architecture. This is when the Romans were using Roman numerals. The abacus has come a long way since being used in ancient times by the Greeks and Romans.

Evolution of Abacus:

Who Invented Abacus?

Abacus was invented by Chinese in 500 BC (while some indications argue on its invention by Babylonians in 300 BC) and was used as one of the most primitive calculators (or counting device to be precise). The first century sources have also given evidence on abacus being used by Indians with a separate column that counted digits with ‘shunya’ (zero). Although, the history still searches for facts that can give a confirmed statement on the invention of abacus. The Salamis tablet (300 BC) used by Babylonians circa is considered to be the ancestor of abaci. Then came the Roman and Greek abaci, which had different orientation and presentation, but same functionality. Different ages brought different changes in the forms of abaci as its usage was adapted by races from China, India, Korea, Persia, Rome, Japan and Russia. The Suanpan, one of the modern age abaci which was a Chinese abacus had 2/5 decks and due to its complexity was replaced by Soroban abacus, a Japanese abacus, which was developed further by a famous mathematician Seki Kowa who removed one bead each from upper and lower decks to make it 1/4 decks.

Abacus Today:

The abacus we use today is the Soroban abacus. It gained popularity with the whole World competing on a common platform after Globalization. It had an impact on the education system of different nations.
 
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